All electrical components/ electronics only understands the machine language which is in 0`s and 1`s . Therefore in order for us to be able to communicate with these electronics we need a system. We need a digital system .
The digital system has two signal values, which are 0`s and 1`s. The “0” = OUTPUT while the “1” = INPUT or binary numbers.
For example, in order for us to instruct our MCU, a digital system must be used because it understands 0`s and 1`s. If we want to use any port on the MCU as an output, that is the MCU gives it instruction, the register of that port must be set to 0. But if we want the port as an input , that is the MCU takes instruction from it, the register of the port will be set to 1.
NB: Digital input and output is very important as we will be making use of it in all our projects.

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